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The recent trends in nanomaterials in biomedical applications and an overview to discuss the commercialization of nanomaterials. Thanks to innovative ideas in nano-materials has created many new discoveries in the medical, consumer and industrial applications. The properties of nano-materials lead to a fair interest in a variety of applications in the biomedical field such as structural and physico-chemical properties. In a biological activity; the toxicities of a nanoparticle are frequently reported. In the presence of acellular factors such as size, composition, particle surface and the presence of metals in a nanomaterial induces oxidative stress and creates a pathway for pathological physiological effects that include fibrosis, genotoxicity and lesions in a skin. Zinc oxide acts as an antioxidant to reduce oxidative stress and acts as a protective agent for an immune system in the biomedical field.
To understand the bone characteristics at the tissue level, it is necessary to examine the structure, organization and mechanical properties of the underlying layers up to the nanoscale and their mutual interactions. Such information would help to understand changes in bone properties including stiffness, stamina and toughness and provide ways to evaluate aged and diseased bones and the development of next-generation bio-inspired materials. X-ray diffraction techniques have gained increasing interest in recent years as useful non-destructive tools for investigating bone nanostructure. This review provides an overview of recent progress in this field and briefly introduces the related experimental approach. The application of X-ray diffraction to clarify the structural and mechanical properties of mineral crystals in bone is examined in terms of characterization of the strain in situ, strain by residual stress and orientation of the crystals.
Preparation of the PDMS / PVDF composite pervaporation membrane modified with hydrophobic TiO2 nanoparticles for the separation of the formaldehyde solution.
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was mixed with hydrophobic TiO2 nanoparticles and then coated on the polyvinylidene fluoride ultrafiltration membrane (PVDF) to form the composite membrane (PDMS / TiO2) / PVDF. The structure, morphology and physical properties of the composite membrane were characterized by FTIR, SEM, contact angle measurement and wet-dry swelling degree test. The TiO2 was uniformly distributed in the PDMS matrix and the composite membrane showed a greater affinity with formaldehyde than water. The membrane was used to separate the formaldehyde water solution to 1000 ppm through a pervaporation (PV) process. The results showed that the membrane could selectively permeate the formaldehyde on the water and the best separation performance could be reached at 50 ° C with a separation factor of 11.25 and a total flow of 187.72 g · m-2 · h-1 , which were better than the pristine PDMS / PVDF membrane with a separation factor of 10.66 and a total flow of 115.52 g · m-2 · h-1. Thus, the addition of TiO2 not only increased the flow of the membrane, but also increased the separation factor of the composite membrane. This study showed that the pervaporation technology had the potential to treat formaldehyde wastewater.
Bacteria, yeasts and viruses are quickly killed on copper metal surfaces, and the term “contact abatement” has been coined for this process. While the phenomenon was already known in ancient times, it is receiving renewed attention. This is due to the potential use of copper as an antibacterial material in health facilities. Killing of the contact was observed to occur at a rate of at least 7 to 8 logs per hour, and no live microorganism was generally recovered from the copper surfaces after prolonged incubation. The antimicrobial activity of copper and copper alloys is well established and copper has recently been registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the first solid antimicrobial material. In several clinical studies, copper has been evaluated for use on tactile surfaces, such as door handles, sanitary fixtures or bed railings, in an attempt to limit nosocomial infections. In relation to these new applications of copper, it is important to understand the mechanism of contact killing as it can support central issues, such as the possibility of emergence and diffusion of resistant organisms, cleaning procedures and engineering issues of materials and objects. Recent work has shed light on the mechanistic aspects of the killing of contacts.
Porous materials can be classified into two groups: macroporous and nanoporous materials. The first has pores larger than one meter in diameter, while the latter has pores as small as the nanometer. Furthermore, the materials can also be distinguished from the pore, isotropic and anisotropic form. The isotropic pores are spherical or polyhedral, while the anisotropic pores are elongated pores aligned unidirectionally or distributed in a random direction. Here, two types of examples on macroporous metals are shown in the next. Foamed metals can be manufactured using foaming phenomena; bubbling occurs when the hydride is added to the high viscosity melted aluminum and during the solidification process foaming takes place to produce expanded aluminum . The porosity is over 90%, which has an ultra-light weight. These are widely used for the sound of absorbing materials and shock absorber for cars . Another example is the lotustype metals with directional pores, which can be fabricated through unidirectional solidification using the solubility space of the hydrogen between solid and liquid. The specific force in the direction parallel to the directional pores is equivalent to the strength of non-porous materials. Therefore, the lotus-based materials have sufficient strength even in porous materials. Lotus copper and aluminum are expected to be used for heat sinks for electronic devices; the straight and penetrable pores look like a bundle of thin tubes. The refrigerant can flow through the pores under a slight pressure drop and effectively cool the Joule heated devices.
The old production of spray additives leads to the acceleration of metal dust particles with a high-speed supersonic gas jet. The particles are fired to a substrate layer and behave like a liquid on impact through a process called plastic deformation. After the impact the particles cool rapidly, forming an atomic fusion bond. The layers accumulate in an object. As reported recently, Singapore Polytechnic will use a LightSPEE3D cold spray additive manufacturing system to search for faster metallic 3D printing, while GE has combined cold spray and AI 3D printing to repair breakdowns and precise failures in metal components .