Immunology & Microbiology

Smad7 as a Target for Immunomodulation Strategy in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory pathologies of the gut, characterized by a relapsing-remitting course. Although IBD pathogenesis is not fully understood, epidemiological and experimental data suggest that multiple environmental factors can, in genetically predisposed individuals, trigger an excessive immune response directed against the antigens of the normal intestinal microflora, which eventually leads to the tissue damage. Defects in the physiological mechanisms/factors of counter-regulation contribute to amplify and sustain such a detrimental response. For instance, in inflamed tissue of IBD patients there is diminished activity of the immunesuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, due to elevated levels of Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of TGF-β1 signaling.

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Single-dose vaccine could provide faster protection in cholera epidemics

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High-dose cholera vaccine developed by UMSOM scientists shows promise for controlling outbreaks. Each year there are more than three million cases of cholera worldwide, a disease transmitted through contaminated food and water that hits developing countries particularly hard. While the standard regimen for protecting against cholera with existing non-living oral cholera vaccines includes administering two doses over a two-week period, research at the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) now shows that giving a stronger single-dose of a live oral vaccine could be an effective tool in controlling outbreaks more quickly.

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Cholera bacteria stab and poison enemies at predictable rates

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Scientists intermingle two rival bacterial groups stained blue and red and watch as they phase separate by stabbing each other. Before separation, they appear as a purple mass then concentrate into separate territories, where their red and blue colors become visible. The enemies were thrown together, so the killing began.

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People with HIV less likely to be prescribed key drugs to reduce cardiovascular risk.

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Physicians in the United States are less likely to prescribe key recommended medications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease to people with HIV compared to HIV-negative individuals, according to research published in the Journal of the American Heart Association. Prescription rates for aspirin, antiplatelet medications and statins were markedly lower for people with HIV, all of whom presented with symptoms or risk factors for cardiovascular disease. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to analyze differences in the quality of cardiovascular care between patients with and without HIV using nationally representative data, comment the investigators. Our results indicate that US physicians generally underuse guideline-recommended cardiovascular care for high-risk adults and are less likely to prescribe aspirin and statins to HIV-infected adults versus HIV-uninfected adults. For more information visit https://goo.gl/nr3YcQ

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Potential of #Dillapiole Combined With #Pyrethroids against #Mosquitoes

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The synergistic potential of dillapiole, a phenylpropanoid isolated from Piper aduncum, in a combination with pyrethroids was evaluated. Although dillapiole has already been proposed as a synergist for a range of insecticides, it has not been tested for controlling disease vector mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albitarsis mosquitoes were exposed to Cypermethrin, α-cypermethrin and dillapiole.

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#Giant Condylomata Acuminata of Buschke and Lowenstein

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Giant condylomata acuminata (GCA) is an uncommon, locally obtrusive tumor that may experience harmful change. It was first depicted a HPV-initiated penile tumour which clinically looked like both a squamous cell carcinoma and condy loma acuminatum, frequently emerging from a prior warty injury. We depict an instance of peri-stomal GCA change into obtrusive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is, as far as anyone is concerned, the main report of this in the writing. Recurring, changing papillomatous lesions in the peristomal area should be reviewed with a high index of suspicion in relation to GCA tumours as they can progress to invasive squamous cell carcinomas.

Does #malaria tricks the immune system

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die. In 2013 an estimated 198 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide and 500,000 people died, mostly children in the African Region.

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