Immunology & Microbiology

CDC Issues Guidance for #Infants Born to Mothers with Possible #Zika Infection

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Despite the fact that Zika virus cases are down compared with this time last year, cases continue to spring up in other countries across the world and in the United States, which serves as a reminder: Zika is still a big public health threat, especially to pregnant women and their unborn children.

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DNA Zip Codes in Herpesvirus Genomes

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The genomes of 39 herpesviruses were examined for the presence of DNA zip codes, sequence elements found in yeast to be involved in gene localization to the nuclear periphery and transcriptional memory. Tests were carried out with three different zip codes and with viruses in all three subfamilies of the Herpesviridae. All genomes were found to have have at least three zip codes with 30 the most observed. Zip codes in many alphaherpesviruses and in human cytomegalovirus were found to be symmetrically arranged within the S genome segment, a region that inverts actively during virus replication. This suggests zip codes may be involved in the segment inversion process. Zip codes located in 16 alphaherpesvirus promoters were examined separately from those in other locations. The genes most likely to have a zip code containing promoter were found to be those encoding glycoprotein B and transcription factor ICP4. Of the two, zip codes associated with ICP4 are of particular interest as their ability to mediate transcriptional memory is well-suited for a role in reactivation of alphaherpesviruses from the latent state.

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Complete Child Immunisation: A Cluster Analysis of Positive Deviant Regions in Ghana

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The Alma-Ata Declaration recognized immunisation as essential primary health care. During the 1970’s, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Expanded Programme on Immunization. In 1989, WHO recommended that yellow fever vaccine be used in endemic areas? In the 1990’s, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenza type b vaccines were recommended where the disease burden was high. Immunisation has helped to eradicate smallpox. It has lowered the global incidence of polio by 99%. Apart from safe drinking water, no other public health modality, has led to such major mortality reduction, as has immunisation. Accordingly, immunisation is one of the most cost effective public health investments that the world can make for future generations.

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Age to End Dreadful Diseases (HIV, Malaria, TB, Cancer and More): A Theory of Intact or Protected Complement (IPC) Immunity

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After enormous efforts to fight for a successful HIV vaccine, the movement ended with frustration. While people are celebrating the victories of disease prophylaxis and healthy improvement, millions of them are still struggling on numerous unsettled dreadful illnesses, i.e., HIV, malaria, TB, cancer and autoimmune disorders. A theory of Intact or Protected Complement (IPC) immunity proposed in this review is to focus on hijacked complement system, the powerful leverage weapon restrained by many pathogens or cancer cells. The theory is to stimulate more investigations to discover the key block in continuous achievement in successful vaccine development and immune therapy.

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Submit your manuscript at https://goo.gl/3IDTHtn-HIV-628x314

Synthesis of citramalic acid from glycerol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

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Content: Citramalic acid (citramalate) serves as a five-carbon precursor for the chemical synthesis of methacrylic acid. We compared citramalate and acetate accumulation from glycerol using Escherichia coli strains expressing a modified citramalate synthase gene cimA from Methanococcus jannaschii. These studies revealed that gltA coding citrate synthase, leuC coding 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase, and acetate pathway genes play important roles in elevating citramalate and minimizing acetate formation. Controlled 1.0 L batch experiments confirmed that deletions in all three acetate-production genes (poxB, ackA, and pta) were necessary to reduce acetate formation to less than 1 g/L during citramalate production from 30 g/L glycerol. Fed-batch processes using MEC568/pZE12-cimA (gltA leuC ackA-pta poxB) generated over 31 g/L citramalate and less than 2 g/L acetate from either purified or crude glycerol at yields exceeding 0.50 g citramalate/g glycerol in 132 h. These results hold promise for the viable formation of citramalate from unrefined glycerol.

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Quantitative metabolomics of a xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron xylose isomerase on glucose and xylose.

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Content: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot utilize xylose, but the introduction of a xylose isomerase that functions well in yeast will help overcome the limitations of the fungal oxido-reductive pathway. In this study, a diploid S. cerevisiae S288c[2n YMX12] strain was constructed expressing the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron xylA (XI) and the Scheffersomyces stipitis xyl3 (XK) and the changes in the metabolite pools monitored over time. Cultivation on xylose generally resulted in gradual changes in metabolite pool size over time, whereas more dramatic fluctuations were observed with cultivation on glucose due to the diauxic growth pattern.

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Predicting #Malaria Risk and Utilization of Health Care Services among the Population in Uganda

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The objective of this study was to predict malaria risk and utilization of health care services among the population in Uganda. Methods: We used a retrospective longitudinal study design that involved a secondary analysis of data from Ministry of Health (MoH) and Uganda Bureau of statistics (UBOS).The predicting model was derived taking limiting distribution of the partial derivative with respect to time of the malaria predicting model at the health facilities.

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