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Some bioeroding sponges of the Cliona viridis species complex are aggressive space competitors on coral reefs, which can often kill hard corals. Like hard corals, C. viridis complex spp. are symbiotic with the dinoflagellates Symbiodinium spp., which provide vital energy for the hosts’ survival. In this study, C. viridis complex spp. and hard corals were observed on a Caribbean reef over a year. Many hard corals were found bleached (tissue whitening due to the loss of Symbiodinium spp.) at elevated temperatures. However, C. viridis complex spp. appeared to be unaffected and remained dark brown at all times, indicating abundant Symbiodinium within the sponges. Our observations suggest a higher tolerance of some C. viridis complex spp. to bleaching compared to hard corals. This finding also implies a competitive advantage of these bioeroding sponges over hard corals during increasingly frequent and severe mass bleaching events under climate change, potentially leading to net reef erosion.
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Composition of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Palmitoleic Acid in Eucheuma denticulatum, Sargassum polycystum and Caulerpa lentillifera Ethanolic Extracts by LC-ESI-MS/MS
Omega-3 and omega-7 fatty acids have been linked to health benefit in humans. Seaweeds are potential source of fatty acids. Thus, in the current study, a rapid and highly selective method with minimal sample preparation based on liquid chromatographic electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and palmitoleic acid (PA) in Eucheuma denticulatum, Caulerpa lentillifera and Sargassum polycystum ethanolic extracts. The levels of DHA, EPA and PA were in ranges of 6.0-7.0 μg/100 g DW, 51.0- 122.0 μg/100 g DW and 5.0-690.0 μg/100 g DW respectively in the three species of seaweed tested. The standard calibration curves for PA, DHA and EPA were linear (R2 > 0.99) over the concentration ranged between 0-3.00 ng μL-1, respectively, satisfactory recoveries (> 77%), low detection (0.0047- 0.0175 ng μL-1) and quantification limits (0.0156-0.0580 ng μL-1) (LOD and LOQ, respectively). These results indicated that LC-ESI-MS/MS was successfully applied to the analysis of the selected fatty acids in the three groups of seaweeds.
The Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adam and Reeve 1850) was introduced into France in the 1970s and now dominates the European clam Ruditapes decusattus (Linnaeus 1758) in the intertidal zone of the western Cotentin (English Channel). While it has successfully colonized a large variety of sediment habitats, from muddy sand to gravel, the densities remain< 20 ind. m-2. In this extensive intertidal zone, it is difficult to estimate the density as well as the stock of such dispersed species of clam. Our study has three main objectives: i) to determine a better sampling strategy to estimate the density of Ruditapes spp. clam populations; ii) to assess the spatial distribution of clams at the scale of the western coast of Cotentin (30 km of coastline from North to South), and iii) to evaluate the stock and annual quantities of clams fished by recreational and professional fishing in this area. For the estimation of densities and stock of Ruditapes spp., it is better to continue using a quadrat area of 1 m² for a large number of random sampling points (≥ 400) to estimate with the greatest possible spatial precision the local and regional abundance of such low-density populations. Sampling techniques with smaller quadrats and more sampling points lead to higher standard deviation of the mean densities. The species are distributed in four main patches covering between 0.54 to 3.14 km² out of a total of 10.47 km² (~ 10% of the intertidal zone). The 2015 stock (Ruditapes> 40 mm, legal catch size) in these four patches is estimated as 382 t (fresh weight with shell) for a total of harvest of 122 t (32% of the adult stock), which corresponds to a catch of 8 t by professional fishers and 113 t by recreational fishers.
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Since its establishment in 2004, Cayar Marine Protected area (North of Senegal) is characterized by a lack of information on its fish fauna. Therefore, it becomes necessary to characterize the fish fauna of this MPA and its dynamics in time and space for a sustainable management of this conservation area. This present study investigated seasonal and spatial structure of the fish assemblage of Cayar MPA. This study consisted of collaborative seasonal sampling with local communities from six stations within the four main fishing areas with two types of fishing gears, purse seine and long line between 2015 and 2016. Ecological and trophic classification was performed in order to determine the fish fauna nature of this MPA. Multivariate analysis like factorial correspondence analysis and hierarchical classification analysis were carried out to study spatial and seasonal structure of fish assemblage of Cayar MPA. A total of 103 fish species from 45 families were reported. The most abundant species and the richest family were Pagellus bellottii and Carangidae, respectively. The fish assemblage was dominated by species of marine affinity and predators. Spatial and seasonal fish assemblages differed both in terms species richness and fish abundance. The highest and lowest species richness and abundance were recorded during the cold season and cold to warm transition period, respectively. A clear separation was found between stations where purse seine and long line were applied, in species composition and abundance. Results from this study might serve as the reference point of the fish assemblage in Cayar MPA. However, further investigation on the environmental variability is needed for a better understanding of the observed fish assemblage organization in time and space.
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There has been a rapid growth in the interest and adaptation of saliva as a diagnostic specimen over the last decade, and in the last few years in particular, there have been major developments involving the application of saliva as a clinically relevant specimen. Saliva provides a “window” into the oral and systemic health of an individual, and like other bodily fluids, saliva can be analyzed and studied to diagnose diseases. With the advent of new, more sensitive technologies to detect smaller concentrations of analytes in saliva relative to blood levels, there have been a number of critical developments in the field that we will describe to know more please visit https://www.scitechnol.com/abstract/a-networkbased-analysis-of-proteins-involved-in-hypoxia-stress-and-identification-of-leader-proteins-4982.html
Currently, drug abuse and addiction represent a global public health concern with about 13.6 million people using illicit drugs in the USA alone. Substance abuse intervenes in normal brain functioning, causing alterations in memory, behavior and neuronal physiology. Although many studies have been conducted to elucidate the mode of action of different drugs, the heterogeneous modes of drug intake led to a complicated profile of drug-induced brain to know more please visit https://www.scitechnol.com/abstract/evaluation-of-tryptic-peptides-from-neisseria-meningitidis-outer-membrane-proteins-pora-and-porbrndigestion-peptides-6670.html