Environmental Science

Remote sensing data reveals hundreds more species at risk of extinction

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Existing assessments of extinction risk would benefit from modern geospatial technologies, say scientists, who warn that there are hundreds more species who are at risk of extinction than is currently recognized.

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High-resolution modeling assesses impact of cities on river ecosystems

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A new study from ORNL shows the far-reaching impacts of US cities’ energy consumption on regional ecosystems. Urban areas cover only about 5 percent of the Southeast’s landscape but cities’ water and energy infrastructures often extend well beyond urban areas as power plants (represented as black dots) are distributed throughout the entire region.

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Japanese challenge of introducing #renewable energies: Policy, economics, technology and reaction of existing electric power companies

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In Japan, Feed-in-Tariff scheme started from July 2012 replacing RPS and revising existing purchasing scheme for PV electricity. Thanks to FIT, Japanese renewable energy was introduced very much. The most of them are PVs. Government makes some amendment on FIT from 2017. Their main purpose is to meet energy mix at 2030 and lower the cost of FIT at the same time. There are 4 main factors: Policy and regulation, Power generation Technology (including cost), Finance and power system. Policy and regulation is the main key. But, many companies rely on it excessively. Cost reduction and new business model is highly needed. Finance sector also rely on FIT. But it is also needed to invest new business scheme. Power system in Japan is very different from those in other countries. Inter connection is limited not only with other country but also within Japan. To make maximum use of the electricity generated from renewable energies, the technology and operation policy of #power system have to be changed dramatically. Technological innovation for smart grid has to be introduced.

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Bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in the Oyster Saccostrea cucullata and Surface Sediments of Hendourabi Island-Persian Gulf, Iran

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The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in the shell and soft tissue of the oyster Saccostrea cucullata and surface sediment from the intertidal zones of Hendourabi Island, Persian Gulf, Iran, were studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in the shell and soft tissue of the oyster S. cucullata and the respective metal measured in surface sediment. The oyster and surface sediment samples were collected from three stations in June 2011. The mean concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in surface sediment were 2.36, 0.02, and 46.4 μg/g dw, respectively. In comparison with mean crust and mean world sediment, the Pb and Zn concentrations were far lower, while the Cd concentration was a lot higher than the mean crust Cd concentration.

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The Investigation of Metal and Mineral Levels of Some Marine Species from the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea

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In this study, the metal and mineral concentrations of some marine species from Northeastern Mediterranean Sea were determined. Seafood samples were: Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758), Mullus barbatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Upeneus moluccensis (Bleeker, 1855), Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758), Saurida undosquamis (Richardson, 1848), Scomber japonicus (Houttuyn, 1782), Chelidonichthys lucernus (Linnaeus, 1758), Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758), Nemipterus randalli (Russell, 1986), Trachurus mediterraneus (Staindachner, 1868), Sphyraena pinguis (Günther, 1874), Spicara flexuosa (Rafinesque, 1810), Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus, 1758), Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798), Melicertus kerathurus (Forskal, 1775).

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Reproductive Cycle of the Edible Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in the Coastal Region El Jadida-Safi (Atlantic Ocean, Morocco)

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The Sea urchins populations of P. lividus had an annual reproductive cycle that was synchronous across sites and between males and females. The histology of the gonads revealed six different stages: Recovering, Growing, Premature, Mature, Partly spawned and Spent. Maturation occurred between March and late April while spawning period occurred in May and early August with little difference between sites. The Gonad indices showed a peak from late winter to early spring. A perfect correlation observed between the gonad index and the histological results suggests that the gonad index decreases when the individual is spawning. Nevertheless, the GI seems to be influenced by abiotic factors particularly sea water temperature in the first station (Sidi Bouzid) and the food richness of the environment in the second station (Ain Darak).

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Antileishmanial Potential of Chondrococcus hornemanni against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis

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Exploration of safe and effective antileishmanials from natural resources is an active area of research. Therefore we have selected C. hornemanni to evaluate its antileishmanial potential. The crude ethanol extract and its fractions were tested both in vitro and in vivo. The crude ethanol extract yielded almost (88.0 ± 6.9% inhibition of promastigotes and 75.8 ± 5.2% inhibition of intracellular amastigotes at 100 μg/ml concentration with IC50 values of 29.5 μg/ml and 40.6 μg/ml, respectively.

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