Environmental Science

35-Year Studies of Reproduction in Marine Invertebrates and the Influence of Climatic Factors on it

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The studies of fouling of pioneer artificial substrates, conducted for the past 35 years near the coast of Primorsky Territory, Sea of Japan, Russia, have revealed an asynchronism in reproduction of invertebrates. Juveniles of Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis and other widely distributed bivalves of boreal origin (Mytilus trossulus and Hiatella arctica) were, as a rule, abundant (over 250 scallops per a square meter of artificial substrate) in the odd-numbered years from 1977 to 1985. This is related mainly to the duration of ice season in previous winter, amount of precipitation, surface water salinity, and wind speed in June.

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Prediction Models of Copepods Biomass from the Mass-Length and Carbon Content-Length Relationship

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Adult calanoid copepods of six species were collected in the Ensenada de La Paz in autumn 2010. Prosome length, dry mass and carbon content were measured to determine the mass-length relationship and the condition factor. Acartia clause, A. lilljeborgii, Temora discaudata and Undinula vulgaris were the species with high determination coefficients (p <0.05) compared to Centropages furcatus and L. johnsoni (p> .05). The condition factor of the species is the first reference for subtropical copepods in the study area. Depending on the species, organic carbon fluctuated between 20 and 47% of the dry mass and only for A. clause was the premise of 45% carbon dry mass satisfied.

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Making green chemistry sustainable

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Academia, Industry and Government all have roles to play in the future of #Green Chemistry practice. Understanding triple-bottom line drivers and how to affect change in a constrained #environment is important, but so to is the possibilities offered by new approaches to generate new markets through awareness. In this presentation, I’d like to explore with you one approach we are undertaking to include researchers, industry executives and government in promoting awareness of green chemistry across the three dimensions of people, planet, profits. By understanding what we do, I invite you to contribute to build a more globalised activity through collaboration, activity and investment.

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Environment Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal, Open access journal, List of Environment Journal

Multimetal supramolecular systems for cooperative regulation of unique structures and functions

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Cooperative regulation is one of the most effective ways to finely change molecular functions in #biological as well as artificial supramolecular systems by utilizing information at molecular level. The cooperative and synergistic chemical events should decrease the reaction steps for chemical conversion to a product and to create novel functions that cannot be achieved by a non-cooperative single molecular system. Thus, these regulation mechanisms would strongly contribute to green and sustainable chemistry because of reducing the laborious processes. Hence we have studied functional #supramolecules responding to external stimuli as a cooperative system.

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Environment Journal, Peer Reviewed Journal, Open access journal, List of Environment Journal

Statistical Studies of Soil Geochemical Data from Gbongan-Odeyinka Area, Southwestern Nigeria

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In order to follow up some geochemical anomalies discovered in a regional stream sediment survey in parts of southwestern Nigeria, a medium density geochemical soil survey was carried out in Gbongan-Odeyinka area of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria. As a result, soil geochemical data on 13 elements (Ag, As, Au, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn) obtained from 186 samples from the study area were subjected to statistical analysis involving frequency distribution, Pearson correlation and R-mode varimax rotated factor analysis techniques. The frequency distribution plots revealed that all the elements investigated except Ag and Fe, which display approximately normal distribution, are positively skewed with Au and Zn being the strongest. The Pearson correlation study and factor analysis enabled separation of the 13 elements into the following three factors or metal associations: 1) Pb-Co-Ni-Fe-Cr- As-Mn-Cu; 2) Sn-Ag-Au-Cd; and 3) Zn-Cd, which are interpreted to reflect the influence of both environmental and mineralization factors on the soil of the study area. Of the three associations only the Sn-Ag-Au-Cd is considered related to metallic mineralization in the study area based on the existing knowledge of Au and Sn mineralization in the adjacent Ife-Ilesa area. The gold is believed to be hosted by schists and the tin by pegmatites. The other metal associations are interpreted in terms of environmental factors. On the basis of the presence of Fe and Mn in the Pb-Co-Ni-Fe-Cr-As- Mn-Cu association, it is inferred that the scavenging action of iron and manganese oxides was at least partly responsible for forming such trace elements association in the soil. In the case of the Zn-Cd association, both metals are considered to be anthropogenic, being possibly introduced to the soil through the application of pesticides on cocoa and kolanut plantations of the study area, although the possibility of Zn being derived from other sources cannot be ruled out.

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Mapping Potential Soil Erosion Risk Areas in Abia State, Nigeria Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS)

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The study used Geographic Information System (GIS) to integrate data from Remote Sensing (RS) to map out areas that are prone to erosion in Abia State, Nigeria. This was done using the index model and weighted overlay of ArcGIS software. The result showed that about 0.18% (2.325 ha) of the study area, covering the northern part (Abriba and Nkporo areas) and Ikwuano areas is under very high potential erosion risk, while 0.92% (11.475 ha) is under high erosion risk. The high erosion risk areas in the north are all located on the top of the escarpment running from Isuochi, through Isuikwuato, Ohafia and down to Arochukwu.Also 20.98% (262.54 ha) of the study area, covering the following Local Government Areas – Umuahia South, IsialaNgwa North, IsialaNgwa South, Osisioma, Obingwa, Aba North and Aba South is under moderately high erosion risk, while 34.51% (431.82 ha) is under moderate erosion risk and 43.49% (543 ha) covering the Ukwa/ Ngwa area, whose topography is gentle to no slope falls under low potential erosion risk. The study showed that using RS and GIS technologies for erosion risk/hazard mapping, based on the methodology used, resulted in effective and accurate assessment of soil erosion in considerable short time and at a low cost for large study areas or watersheds. It is recommended that Government Agencies and private should explore the advantages offered by RS and GIS in delineating erosion prone areas for planning and design of structures.

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The Perception and Knowledge of the Use of Plastic Paneling, and #Safety Precautions among Suppliers, Builders and Home Tenants in Kumasi

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The view of #plastic paneling varies greatly across the world and this reflects attitudes to the many different compounds employed in producing these materials and liberated from them during usage. There is therefore exposure via inhalation to chemicals such as Volatile Organic Compounds (benzene, toluene and formaldehyde used as polymerization solvents) and additives such as plasticizers (di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) which leach at environmental conditions and have toxic properties. Dioxins; known carcinogens, are also released when PVC is accidentally burnt or incinerated during disposal.

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Plastic, Safety Precautions, Environmental Pollution, Environmental Monitoring